High School Security Council (Module 04)

Other Models for UN Security Council Reform

The 4-1-1

The Schwartzberg Model is just one of the many that we see for UN Security Council Reform. In this lesson, we will look at a few others that fall into two main reform categories:

  1. Expansion of Membership (Permanent or Non-permanent)
  2. Elimination of or Restraint in Use of the Veto

Expansion of Membership


  • Elect the Council:
    Total 26 or 27 SC members: 16 members for 3 non-renewable years; 8 members for 3 renewable years; 2-3 global powers and/or coalitions chosen based on population, economy and defense expenditure.
  • Popovski 8-8-8 Plan:
    Total 24 SC members: 8 permanent members (European Union, African Union, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, US); 8 members for renewable 8 years; 8 members for non-renewable 2 years.

Elimination of or Restraint in Use of the Veto


  • The Accountability, Coherence and Transparency Group (ACT):
    Advocates for the voluntary suspension of the use of the veto in cases of atrocity crimes (genocide, war crimes or crimes against humanity).
  • The Elders:
    proposes that the casting of a veto by P-5 members would necessitate a public statement suggesting an alternative.

Guiding Questions

  • What are the differences between these models and the Schwartzberg model?
  • Why do you think UN Security Council reform has yet to be accomplished?



Security Council Modules

Prepared by:
Nicole Wilsey Starr & Nancy J. Dunlavy for The Workable World Trust