Security Council (Module 03)
Schwartzberg Model For Security Council Reform
The UN Charter was designed to prevent reforms that would reduce the power of the P5. Because of this, the SC has been the object of more recommendations for reform than any other UN body. Yet these proposals fail to address the SC’s core weaknesses. They narrowly focus on:
- how many new seats should be added,
- whether other nations should have permanent seats,
- if so, with what level of veto power, if any these new nations should be given.
These reforms do not want to end the veto power and they fail to address the Council’s current division of the world.
The Schwartzberg Reform Includes:
1) A Security Council that includes every UN member state within twelve regional seats.
Schwartzberg recommends the following twelve regions (note that three are single nations, each having large populations and/or economic power).
This slide show contains the details of all 193 member states in each of the 12 regions. Please note that Canada is part of Westminster League region and Israel is part of Europe region.
2) Each of the 12 regions would have a weighted vote.
Rather than one-seat-one-vote, This reform recognizes the huge difference in population and economic power of each region, and recommends “weighted voting” based on the following formula:
Weighted Vote = (P+C+8.33%) / 3
Represents the region’s population.
Paid UN Contribution (C)
Represents the region’s paid contribution to the UN budget as a percentage of the total budget (based on Gross National Income – a country cannot “buy” more power on the Security Council).
Constant (of 8.33%)
A constant signifying that all global perspectives of each of the 12 Regions is equally worthy of respect
Each Region in the proposed Security Council Reform will have a vote that is based on the above weighted voting formula.
- Africa South of Sahara (7.16%) 7.16% 7.16%
- Arab League (5.45%) 5.45% 5.45%
- China (12.24%) 12.24% 12.24%
- East Asia (7.24%) 7.24% 7.24%
- Europe (15.86%) 15.86% 15.86%
- India (9.30%) 9.3% 9.3%
- Latin America and the Caribbean (7.90%) 7.9% 7.9%
- Russia and its Neighbours (4.69%) 4.69% 4.69%
- Southeast Asia (6.61%) 6.61% 6.61%
- United States (12.53%) 12.53% 12.53%
- West Asia (6.49%) 6.49% 6.49%
- Westminster League (4.54%) 4.54% 4.54%
3) How does voting work this Reform Security Council? For all substantive matters, 66% of votes are needed to pass a resolution in the Security Council. When any resolution that includes military intervention, 75% of votes are needed.
Is needed for most
(at least 66% of weighted voting)
Required for any resolutions
You can use the voting simulator below for your practice and Security Council reform simulations.
Existing Security Council System VS Reform Model
Click on the button below to see a comparison between the existing security council system and the proposed reform model
Let’s look at the following examples. Can you determine if the resolution will pass or fail in each of these examples?
- Does this reform model with all UN members being represented in the Security Council make sense? Why or why not?
- Compare and contrast the existing and proposed reform Security Council system.
- Do you agree or disagree that eliminating the veto is actually possible? Why or why not?
- Make changes (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it.
- The quality or state of being all the same or all of the same kind.